Who owned california before the us?

Coastal exploration by the Spanish began in the 16th century, with new European settlements along the coast and in the inland valleys that followed in the 18th century.


was part of New Spain until that kingdom dissolved in 1821, becoming part of Mexico until the Mexican-American War (1846-1884), when. When the Spanish navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo became the first European to see the region that is now California in 1542, there were about 130,000 Native Americans who inhabited the area. The territory was neglected by Spain for more than two centuries (until 176) due to reports of poverty in the region and a general slowdown in Spanish exploration.

The merchant Sebastian Vizcaíno sailed from Mexico to the southern coast of California in 1602, naming San Diego, the island of Santa Catalina, Santa Barbara and Monterrey. Working with inaccurate maps, Vizcaíno and several later explorers believed that California was an island and were discouraged when they were unable to trace the surrounding seas. The pressure for settlement came from missionaries eager to convert Native Americans to Christianity, from the intrusion of Russian and British merchants, mainly in search of sea otter skins, and from the search for the Northwest Passage across the North American continent. In 1769, the Spanish viceroy sent land and sea expeditions from Baja California, and the Franciscan friar Junipero Serra established the first mission in San Diego.

Gaspar de Portolá established a military post in 1770 in Monterrey. Colonization began after 1773 with the opening of a land supply route through the southwestern deserts, with the intention of linking other Spanish settlements to the coast in what are the current states of Arizona and New Mexico. The 21 missions established by Serra and his successors were the strongest factors in California's development. While trying to Christianize the Indians of the Mission, the parents taught them agriculture and crafts.

With the forced labor of the Mission Indians, the parents watered vast ranches and exchanged fur, tallow, wine, brandy, olive oil, grain and leather for manufactured goods brought by U.S. merchant ships around Cape Horn. The 1850 Commitment did not solve the problem of slavery in California. Political parties were divided according to whether they believed that California should be a free state or a slave state.

A movement, led by supporters of the senator from California. Gwin, sought to divide California into two states, one slave and one free. The same group also tried to promote a republic on the Pacific coast. However, at the beginning of the Civil War, California sided with the North and provided him with materials and soldiers.

After the war, control of the governor's office shifted back and forth between Democrats and Republicans until the end of the century. The post-1876 political climate was distinguished by labor problems and the activity of those who sought to control mining, irrigation and fruit cultivation through state funding. An economic crisis in the 1870s led to an increase in discontent among unions, one of the results of which was the demand for the exclusion of Chinese workers, who worked for lower wages than “whites”. The problems and turmoil of the period gave rise to the constitution of 1879, which included reforms but discriminated against the Chinese.

An exclusionary law passed by the U.S. UU. That year's Congress was assassinated by the presidential veto, but the following year a treaty agreement with China allowed the U.S. This was followed by the China Exclusion Act in 1882, which suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years.

In 1902, Congress re-enacted exclusionary legislation against the Chinese. By cutting off cheap labor, exclusion helped make huge single-crop ranches unprofitable and led to the proliferation of smaller farms producing assorted crops. Japanese farmworkers were hired to replace the Chinese, but as they succeeded, the protest over the yellow danger increased once again. Japanese upheaval, mainly focused on San Francisco, affected domestic and international policies.

The Knights Agreement between Japan and the United States in 1907 stopped Japanese immigration to the United States. In 1913, Webb's Foreign Lands Act, designed to prevent the Japanese from owning land, was the culmination of anti-Japanese lobbying. Post-1848 ships provided easy and inexpensive connections between California's coastal cities and the routes leading there. An independent group of men called Los Osos raised the Bear Flag of the Republic of California over Sonoma.

Those who took the California Trail generally left Missouri River cities in early April and arrived in California between 150 and 170 days later, late August or early September. Known as the Bear Flag Revolt, this insurrection represented one of the first aggressive actions that divided California from Mexico. The secularization of the missions was sought by Spanish-Mexican settlers known as Californios when Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. Not until 1542 did the Spaniards sail north to Alta California, and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo's expedition that year landed as far north as modern Santa Barbara. With the prospect of the looming civil war, Butterfield's stage contract was terminated and the route of the stage to California was redirected.

Polk, in office from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849, tried to get the Congress of 1848 to turn California into a territory with a territorial government and again in 1849, but failed to get Congress to agree on the details of how to do it, the issue was the number of free states vs. Baja California became the northwestern limit of Spanish colonization, and even there, efforts to settle in the area and bring native tribes to Christianity and European ways were unenthusiastic, at best. The California Missions, after all were established, were located a day away on horseback to facilitate communication and were joined by the El Camino Real trail. The ship Isabella sailed from Philadelphia on August 16, 1847, with a detachment of one hundred soldiers, and arrived in California on February 18, 1848, the following year, around the same time that the ship Sweden arrived with another detachment of soldiers.

The first governor of California, Peter Burnett, openly called for the extermination of Indian tribes, and referring to the violence against the native population of California, he said: “That a war of extermination between the two races continues until the Indian race is extinct, it must be anticipated. The first Europeans to explore the California coast were members of a Spanish sailing expedition led by Captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542 and reached at least as far north as the island of San Miguel. The ranch owners claimed about 8,600,000 acres (35,000 km), with an average of 18,900 acres (76 km each). From 1847 to 1850, California had military governors appointed by the top military commander in California.

These food shipments shifted mainly to shipments from Oregon and domestic shipments in California as agriculture developed in both states. . .

Wade Rueckert
Wade Rueckert

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