It extends from the Mexican border along the Pacific for almost 900 miles. Its terrain includes cliff-lined beaches, redwood forests, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, farmland of the Central Valley and the Mojave Desert. The city of angels is the headquarters of the Hollywood entertainment industry. The first Spanish missionaries arrived in California in the 18th century, but California did not become the United States.
Territory until 1847, as part of the treaty ending the Mexico-American War. Soon after, the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 inspired a wave of settlers to head to the west coast in search of fortune. In 1850, California became the 31st state, and is now the third largest state behind Alaska and Texas. With millions of acres of farmland, California leads U.S.
UU. The state is also home to famous cultural institutions and national parks, such as Hollywood, Disneyland, Yosemite National Park, Alcatraz, Angel Island and the Golden Gate Bridge. The pressure for settlement came from missionaries eager to convert Native Americans to Christianity, from the intrusion of Russian and British merchants, mainly in search of sea otter skins, and from the search for the Northwest Passage across the North American continent. In 1769, the Spanish viceroy sent land and sea expeditions from Baja California, and the Franciscan friar Junipero Serra established the first mission in San Diego.
Gaspar de Portolá established a military post in 1770 in Monterrey. Colonization began after 1773 with the opening of a land supply route through the southwestern deserts, with the intention of linking other Spanish settlements to the coast in what are the current states of Arizona and New Mexico. The year 1848 saw the closure of Mexican control over Alta California; this period also marked the beginning of the greatest prosperity of ranchers. The first governor of California, Peter Burnett, openly called for the extermination of Indian tribes, and referring to the violence against the native population of California, he said: “That a war of extermination between the two races continues until the Indian race is extinct, it must be anticipated.
The number of settlers in Alta California, always a minority of the total population, increased slowly, mostly in more births than deaths in California's population. Most of the grants were virtually free and were usually directed to friends and family members of the California government. After the establishment of Misiones in Alta California after 1769, the Spaniards treated Baja California and Alta California as a single administrative unit, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with Monterrey as their capital. The ship Isabella sailed from Philadelphia on August 16, 1847, with a detachment of one hundred soldiers, and arrived in California on February 18, 1848, the following year, around the same time that the ship Sweden arrived with another detachment of soldiers.
Debt claims against Mexico, boundary claims of the new state of Texas were resolved, and New Mexico, California, and the unestablished territory of several future states of the southwestern United States were added to U. In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and Alta California became a Mexican province rather than a Spanish colony. It took an average of 200 days for the ships to travel over 17,000 miles (27,000 km) from the east coast around South America's Cape Horn to California. Article IX encouraged education throughout the state and established a system of public schools partially funded by the state and provided for the establishment of a University (University of California).
They crossed the Sonora Desert to California from Mexico swinging south of the Gila River to avoid Apache attacks until they collided with the Colorado River at the Yuma junction, almost the only way across the Colorado River. One of the main problems that occurred during the gold rush was the lack of a payload for ships leaving California. They were leaving California on their way to what is now Oregon when they learned in early June 1846 that war was imminent and that a revolt had already begun in Sonoma, California. From 1847 to 1850, California had military governors appointed by the top military commander in California.
Before Alta California became part of the Mexican state, about 30 Spanish land concessions had already been made throughout Alta California to soldiers of the Presidio and government officials and to some friends and family of the governors of Alta California, some of whom were grandchildren of the original Anza of 1775 expedition settlers. The 21 missions established by Serra and his successors were the most important factors in California's development. . .